1. The differentiation of young plants or bulbils at the floral axils, instead of flowers. This is seen, for instance, in viviparous fescue (Festuca vivipara) and in the spider plant (Chlorophytum comosum).
2. The premature germination of seeds or spores in situ on the maternal plant before they have been released. This occurs in the mangroves where seeds may develop into sizeable seedlings before they are shed from the parent tree.