A subclass of the dicotyledons containing both woody and herbaceous plants. The flowers may be unisexual or bisexual and the stamens develop in a centrifugal manner. Some 12-17 orders are recognized including: the Dilleniales; the Theales, including the Theaceae (e.g. camellia, tea) and Guttiferae; the Malvales, including the Tiliaceae (e.g. limes) and Malvaceae (e.g. mallows); the Violales, including the Violaceae (e.g. violets), Flacourtiaceae, and Begoniaceae (begonias); the Salicales, containing the Salicaceae (e.g. willows); the Capparales, including the Cap-paraceae (e.g. capers), and *Cruciferae
(e.g. mustards); the Ericales, including the *Ericaceae
(heath family); the Diapensiales; the Ebenales, including the Sapotaceae (e.g. sapodillas) and Ebenaceae (e.g. ebonies); and the Primulales, including the Primulaceae (primrose family). Other orders sometimes recognized include: the Paeoniales (often placed with the Dilleniales); the Passiflorales, Cucurbitales, and Tamarales (often placed with the Violales); the Euphorbiales (often placed in the subclass Rosidae); and the Thymeleales (often placed either with the family Flacourtiaceae or in the order Myrtales of the subclass Rosidae). The Urticales, including the Ulmaceae (e.g. elms), Moraceae (e.g. mulberries, figs), and Urticaceae (e.g. nettles), is sometimes included in the Dilleniidae, and sometimes in the Hamamelidae.