(Sympetalae) A subclass of the dicotyledons containing mostly herbaceous plants having flowers with fused petals. They have few stamens and usually only two carpels and the seeds are surrounded by only one integument (unitegmic). The following seven orders are generally recognized: Gentianales (Contortae), including the Loganiaceae or Buddlejaceae (e.g. buddleias), Gen-tianaceae, Apocynaceae (e.g. oleanders), and Asclepiadaceae (e.g. milkweeds); Polemoniales, including the Convolvu-laceae (e.g. bindweeds), Polemoniaceae (e.g. phlox), and Boraginaceae (e.g. forget-me-nots); Lamiales, including the Verbenaceae and *Labiatae
; Scrophu-lariales, including the *Scrophulariaceae
(foxglove family), Gesneriaceae (e.g. gloxinias), and Acanthaceae; Campanu-lales (Campanales), including the Campanulaceae (bellflower family) and Lobeliaceae; Dipsacales, including the Caprifoliaceae (e.g. honeysuckles); and Asterales, comprising the *Compositae
. Members of the Polemoniales, Lamiales, and Scrophulariales are sometimes grouped in the Tubiflorae. Three further orders are sometimes recognized: Plantaginales (e.g. plantains) often included in the Scrophulariales; Rubiales, often included in the Gentianales; and Calycerales, often included in the Dipsacales.
The affinities of the important family *Solanaceae
are uncertain, some placing it in the Polemoniales and others in the Scrophulariales.